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Why resolution and magnification is needed when observing under a microscope

Scientists use a series of conventions when labelling microscope images. They include information about the magnification of the image (for example, 600x) as well as a scale bar, which acts as a ruler and indicates the true size of the object. These conventions help others to make sense of the images The reason for using a microscope is to magnify features to the point where new details can be resolved. Magnification is the factor by which an image appears to be enlarged. It will be a whole number greater than 1 and is usually followed by an x, as in 10x magnification

Magnification and resolution — Science Learning Hu

Just like a camera, a microscope also has the concept of resolution which just means the ability to resolve details of the subject under examination. Each objective on the microscope has a defined minimum and maximum magnification necessary to achieve for the details of a specimen to be resolved In Biology, the compound light microscope is a useful tool for studying small specimens that are not visible to the naked eye. The microscope uses bright light to illuminate through the specimen and provides an inverted image at high magnification and resolution. There are two lenses that magnify the image of the specimen - the objective lens. You can have same magnification on 2 microscopes with very different resolution. In one picture you will see clearly resolved features (microscope with high resolution) in other you will see something blurry (poor resolution). Magnification is just a how much you magnify your image in comparison to the size of the original object Finally, 1000x magnification is what you must have for observing bacteria as you should. But, be aware that your unit should have great stabilization features. Losing focus is easy at this level of magnification, and that's why not any microscope will do. Also, you must use immersion oil to obtain better resolution

Microscopes can be tricky to use because of the strength of their lens magnifications, typically 4x, 10x and 40x. The difficulty lies in trying to align the specimen in a precise position so the microscope lens can capture it and allow the user to see the specimen close up How to observe yeast under the microscope. Yeast cells are some of the smallest eukaryotic organisms with a diameter of only 5 to 10 micrometers per cell, and thus need to be viewed under high magnification optical microscopes, set to a high numerical aperture, resolution, and brightness Finally, observe the mounted slide through the eyepiece, starting with the lowest magnification, and adjusting the focus, condenser, and illumination as needed. Take note of your observations before moving on to the second magnification, repeating the same steps, then study the onion cells under the highest magnification and compare From deep within the soil to inside the digestive tract of humans. In order to see bacteria, you will need to view them under the magnification of a microscopes as bacteria are too small to be observed by the naked eye. Most bacteria are 0.2 um in diameter and 2-8 um in length with a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals Microscope Magnification Specifications. Field of View or Field Diameter is very important in microscopy as it is a more meaningful number than magnification. Field diameter is simply the number of millimeters or micrometers you will see in your whole field of view when looking into the eyepiece lens. It is just as if you put a ruler under.

The most important property of a microscope is its resolution - the ability to show detail. The best light microscope can show details that are 0.2µm apart and need a magnification of roughly x1500.. Both resolution and magnification are necessary in microscopy in order to give an apparently larger, finely detailed object to view This meme claims that is a mask, which looks more like a chain link fence, under 25 times magnification. Hey dumb dumbs, says the photo, Mask under microscope and virus as well at 25x.

Magnification and Resolution Human Anatomy and

As an example, suppose that for a certain microscope, after lining up the micrometers, we get the following image under the 10X objective: This shows that 80 ocular units are equal to 1.0 mm (1000 microns) for this particular microscope and objective lens. This corresponds to each ocular unit being 12.5 µ long at this specific magnification (10X) Microscope Drawings. When drawing what you see under the microscope, follow the format shown below. It is important to include a figure label and a subject title above the image. The species name (and common name if there is one) and the magnification at which you were viewing the object should be written below the image To view the DNA as well as a variety of other protein molecules, an electron microscope is used. Whereas the typical light microscope is only limited to a resolution of about 0.25um, the electron microscope is capable of resolutions of about 0.2 nanometers, which makes it possible to view smaller molecules. This is achieved because electron microscopes use electron beams rather than the. The eyepiece acts like a magnifying glass, magnifying the (already larger) image from the objective. objective. The objective has a very short focal length and creates a larger, inverted image of the object inside the microscope. What can you observe under a microscope? Here are 50 easy-to-find things to view under a microscope

Microscope Magnification: Explained - Microscope Clarit

  1. The Light Microscope. 1 The Eye piece. 2 Objective lenses of different magnifications. 3 The Iris. 3 The Light source. Comparing light and electron microscopes. Common units used in microscopy. Magnification and resolution. Magnification is the measure of how many times a given object under a microscope has been made larger
  2. Today's objective: Observing Onion Cells under a Microscope. The goals for this lesson are to: Make a wet mount slide. Observe an onion cell under the microscope. Record our observations. Materials Needed for Observing Onion Cells. You will need to purchase some science materials for this lab exercise
  3. The size of viruses ranges from 20 to 400 nm, which is too small to be seen with an optical microscope. The resolution limit of an optical microscope is about 0.5 - 1 µm (500 nm - 1,000 nm). Therefore, we can not see viruses under the microscope. The electron microscope is required to study the structure of viruses
  4. The following routine procedures must be followed to ensure correct and efficient use of the microscope while focusing. 1. Place the microscope slide with the specimen within the stage clips on the fixed stage. Move the slide to center the specimen over the opening in the stage directly over the light source. 2
  5. However, once you use the 100x objective lens, the light refraction when using a dry lens is noticeable. By placing a substance such as immersion oil with a refractive index equal to that of the glass slide in the space filled with air, more light is directed through the objective and a clearer image is observed
  6. Information. The reason for using a microscope is to magnify features to the point where new details can be resolved. Magnification is the factor by which an image appears to be enlarged. It will be a whole number greater than 1 and is usually followed by an x, as in 10x magnification

The most important property of a microscope is its resolution - the ability to show detail. The best light microscope can show details that are 0.2µm apart and need a magnification of roughly. Typical high magnification lenses are 40x and 97x or 100x. The latter two magnifications are used exclusively with oil in order to improve resolution. Move up in magnification by steps. Each time you go to a higher power objective, re-focus and re-center the specimen Magnification is a measure of how much larger a microscope (or set of lenses within a microscope) causes an object to appear. For instance, the light microscopes typically used in high schools and colleges magnify up to about 400 times actual size. So, something that was 1 mm wide in real life would be 400 mm wide in the microscope image The magnification of a compound microscope is a product of the ocular lens magnification and the objective lens magnification. Thus a microscope with an ocular magnification of 10x and an objective magnification of 50x would have a total magnification of 500x. You can see a drawing of Hooke's microscope Magnified observation and instruments. A microscope is an optical instrument used to view small objects by enlarging them with convex lenses. Depending on the design, a light microscope usually has a magnification ranging from 10x to 1000x. Higher magnification requires the usage of electron microscopes

Resolution Power of Optical Microscope is less than Electron Microscope which is about 200 nm (nanometer). Which means the object which is under observation is not magnified clearly. Electron Microscope has a resolution power greater than Optical Microscope which is 0.1 nm (nanometer). The details of object can be observed easily Magnification and resolution. What is different between light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy? Chapter 3- Observing Microorganisms Through a Microscope. OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR. 72 terms. Diet and Nutrition Ch. 1. 59 terms. A little extra for Lect Exam 5. 29 terms. More Chapter 25 RNA Viruses (needed a fresh start) 113. Start studying Microbiology: An Introduction Chapter 3: Observing Microorganisms Through a Microscope.. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools

Then find the magnification imprinted on the objective lens that you are using--it is probably either 4x, 10x, or 40x. Multiply the magnification of the ocular lens times that of the objective lens; this is the total magnification that you see. The quality of the microscope is in its objective lenses A compound microscope is illustrated in Fig. 1 and can magnify from 40 to 2000 times (40 ­ 2000 X). Microscope quality depends, however, on resolving power and not so much on magnification. Resolving power is the ability to distinguish between two points in the field of view

1.5: Microscopy - Biology LibreText

  1. In order to see bacteria, you will need to view them under the magnification of a microscopes as bacteria are too small to be observed by the naked eye. Most bacteria are 0.2 um in diameter and 2-8 um in length with a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals
  2. [In this figure] Human hair under a stereo microscope at 5x magnification. Photo credit: Microscope World. Hair under a compound microscope. A compound microscope has higher power than stereo microscope to resolve the detailed structures of hair. However, the light has to pass through the hair specimen to generate a clear microscopic image
  3. Where r is resolution (the smallest resolvable distance between two objects), NA is a general term for the microscope numerical aperture, λ is the imaging wavelength, NA(obj) equals the objective numerical aperture, and NA(cond) is the condenser numerical aperture. Notice that equation (1) and (2) differ by the multiplication factor, which is 0.5 for equation (1) and 0.61 for equation (2)
  4. The 5 key factors explained in more depth. 1. Total magnification: objective, zoom factor, and eyepieces. The total magnification of a stereo microscope is the combined magnifying power of the objective lens, zoom optics, and eyepieces [4]. The objective has a fixed magnification value

2. Study the slide under 40X, 100X, and 400X (total magnification). What observation did you make when you looked at the e for the first time under low power (40X)? _____ 3. Using 40X total magnification (low power) while looking at the lettere, move the stage forward and backward and right then left. What happens to the e I first started using magnification in 1990 when I bought a bench microscope to use in my dental lab. It was a 10x microscope and I used it to examine the crown dies that came from my impressions. Wow! I was amazed at the difference between what I saw clinically without the aid of any magnification and what I saw under the bench microscope at 10x What is Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) A typical SEM instrument, showing the electron column, sample chamber, EDS detector, electronics console, and visual display monitors. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) uses a focused beam of high-energy electrons to generate a variety of signals at the surface of solid specimens

Objectives are also instrumental in determining the magnification of a particular specimen and the resolution under which fine specimen detail can be observed in the microscope. The objective is the most difficult component of an optical microscope to design and assemble, and is the first component that light encounters as it proceeds from the. A microscope with sufficient magnification to allow adequate characterization of the smallest particles to be classified in the sample under examination, polarising filters in conjunction with analyzers and retardation plates, and color filters of relatively narrow spectral transmission for photomicrography

Is there a relation between the resolution and

Magnification is a quantified property which ranges from 40x, 100x, 400x, and up to 1000x. Resolution: This refers to how good the image is captured by the compound microscope lens. A higher resolution means that the image will be clearer and more detailed. Also, it has an improved visual clarity as it has more layers of magnifications Then review with me the why and how of immersion objectives. The quality of your image depends on your Numerical Aperture (NA) and resolution. To very briefly recap, NA relates to the light gathering properties of the optical components of your microscope, whereas resolution is your ability to distinguish details within your specimen

What Magnification Do You Need To See Bacteria

Today's objective: Observing Onion Cells under a Microscope. The goals for this lesson are to: Make a wet mount slide. Observe an onion cell under the microscope. Record our observations. Materials Needed for Observing Onion Cells. You will need to purchase some science materials for this lab exercise Values range from 0.1 for very low magnification objectives (1x to 4x) to as much as 1.6 for high-performance objectives utilizing specialized immersion oils. As numerical aperture values increase for a series of objectives of the same magnification, we generally observe a greater light-gathering ability and increase in resolution Evenly spread a drop of water soluble wood glue on the bottom side of a leaf (the stomata are located on the bottom side). Wait several hours or overnight for the glue to dry. Carefully peel off the glue. It has become transparent. Use scissors to cut the glue into shape and observe under the microscope. The leaf epidermis cells have left an. The Ultimate Guide to Observing Saturn. November 11, 2020. There is no object in our Solar System more breathtaking than the sixth planet from the Sun, Saturn. Saturn was named after the Roman god Saturnus, known in Greek mythology as Cronus, the god of agriculture and abundance. The planet's opulent rings certainly evoke this image of wealth Microscope resolution is the most important determinant of how well a microscope will perform and is determined by the numerical aperture and light wavelength. It is not impacted by magnification but does determine the useful magnification of a microscope

Part 1: Microscope Parts . The compound microscope is a precision instrument. Treat it with respect. When carrying it, always use two hands, one on the base and one on the neck.. The microscope consists of a stand (base + neck), on which is mounted the stage (for holding microscope slides) and lenses. The lens that you look through is the ocular (paired in binocular scopes); the lens that. A wet mount slide is a common slide preparation technique used to observe many types of live microorganisms. A wet mound slide is a slide that is prepared with some type of liquid placed at the center of the slide that will serve as the medium through which the specimen will move or interact with during microscopic observation Explain why oil is needed for observing bacteria at high power (use the diagram below as a reference). Use terms such as resolution, index of refraction and magnification in your description. Explanation: What would occur if water were used in place of immersion oil? Part III Observations of microbes using light microscopy and oil immersion The total magnification of the compound microscope is the product of the magnification of the objective lens and the eyepiece. Low magnification as compared to the compound microscope. The magnification of this microscope is higher than that of the simple microscope. A condenser lens is not required in simple microscopes

Why Should You Start With the Lowest Magnification

  1. Lab Report: Microorganisms and Microscopy Instructions As you work through the lab, stop and fill in the answers here each time you come to an area with blue highlighted text. Please input your answers in a different colored text than the questions so that it is easy to grade quickly. Intro to the Light Microscope Microscope Basics 1. Discuss the difference between magnification and resolution
  2. Cross-section observation and defect analysis of weld penetration structure. With conventional microscopes, only a part of the metal structure of the weld penetration under observation was in focus, which was why this procedure took a long time. Proficiency was also required to achieve accurate observation and analysis
  3. As the magnification of the objective lens increases, more light is needed. The iris diaphragm (located in the condenser), regulates the amount of light reaching the specimen. The condenser also collects the broad bundle of light produced by the light source and focuses it on the small area of the specimen that is under observation
  4. The workforce thought they might enhance on the design, because the LegoScope nonetheless required customized 3D-printed elements. The one non-Lego elements of their ultimate DIY microscope design are the 2 optical elements: a high-magnification goal and a low-magnification goal
  5. The stereo, stereoscopic or dissecting microscope is an optical microscope variant designed for low magnification observation of a sample, typically using light reflected from the surface of an object rather than transmitted through it. The instrument uses two separate optical paths with two objectives and eyepieces to provide slightly different viewing angles to the left and right eyes
  6. Every single one of us is here because of these little guys, or girls. The human sperm cell is a fascinating thing when viewed through a microscope.In this v..
  7. ation instead of visible light (5,500 Å). The smallest cells have a diameter of 0.1 µ with components which are obviously much smaller

Observing Yeast Under The Microscope » Microscope Clu

  1. What makes a magnification device a 'microscope for electronics'? Not all microscopes (and other magnification devices, like visors) work well for electronics. There are a couple of things that are of particular importance: Vertical working distance. You want to have enough space under the microscope for any tools that you use
  2. The easiest way to see bacteria through a microscope is to prepare a bacterial smear. A smear is a bacterial sample mixed into a drop of water on a microscope slide and then heat fixed. By placing the slide on a microincinerator tray or gently waving slide over Bunsen burner flame until dry
  3. Here's the Coronavirus Under an Electron Microscope. In the last few months, the outbreak of COVID-19 has brought the coronavirus back into the public eye after it had remained relatively silent since 2003.. Yet the coronavirus genome remains a mystery, especially to those outside the scientific community
  4. Many of the techniques required are not that difficult to learn, and a decent used microscope can often be picked up for under $400. The best part is, if you are obsessed with mushrooms and live in an area where they do not come up year-round, you can spend quality time with your little friends in the off season
  5. Elikliv 7 LCD Digital Microscope Dual Lens, Cell Microscope 2000X Magnification Elikliv 7-inch LCD microscope using dual lenses, 50x-2000x magnification. It is suitable for various scenes, whether it is used to observe coins, observe insects, PCB circuit welding repair, or observe cells, it is one of the best choices
  6. Resolution is directly related to the useful magnification of the microscope and the perception limit of specimen detail, though it is a somewhat subjective value in microscopy because at high magnification, an image may appear out of focus but still be resolved to the maximum ability of the objective and assisting optical components

Observing Onion Cells Under The Microscope » Microscope Clu

What magnification do I need to see bacteria? Westla

Resolution The rendering of detail; high magnification without good resolution is of your microscope is not magnification, but the rendering of detail or resolution. If a Increase the power of magnification until you are observing the subject at high power (400X). Upon completion, turn the nosepiece to the lowest power objective and resolution is generally much more important than magnification in using a microscope. (Why?) Setting up and using Kohler illumination 1. Place a prepared specimen slide, with the coverslip facing upward, onto the stage of the microscope. Turn on the microscope's light source (on your microscope, rotate a red wheel located on the left. In microscopy, the term 'resolution' is used to describe the ability of a microscope to distinguish detail. In other words, this is the minimum distance at which two distinct points of a specimen can still be seen - either by the observer or the microscope camera - as separate entities. The resolution of a microscope is intrinsically linked to the numerical aperture (NA) of the optical. What is the size of the cell image with a microscope magnification of X 50? (give you answer in µm and mm) image size = magnification x object size, 1 mm ≡ 1000 µm. image size = 50 x 150 = 7500 µm and 7500 ÷ 1000 = 7.5 mm . Q4 The image of a red blood cell is 7.0 mm under a microscope magnification of 1000 X The Microscopic World. Figure 1. There would be little to do in a microbiology laboratory without a microscope, because the objects of our attention (bacteria, fungi, and other single celled creatures) are otherwise too small to see. Microscopes are optical instruments that permit us to view the microbial world

Microscope Magnification Microbus Microscope Educational

  1. This will give you the magnification power to see bacterial cells and to observe differences in morphology of the bacterial cells. This 100X objective lens requires the use of oil immersion, which I will explain in a future techniques post. Another thing to consider is whether you want to take photos of what you see under the microscope
  2. Most light microscopes can only magnify 1000×, and a few can magnify up to 1500×, but this does not begin to approach the magnifying power of an electron microscope (EM), which uses short-wavelength electron beams rather than light to increase magnification and resolution. Figure 10. A transmission electron microscope (TEM)
  3. = 0.1 µm), but image quality suffered from an inability on the part of the manufacturers to correct for aberrations caused by the quartz
  4. Be able to explain how working distance, field size, brightness, and resolution change with increasing magnification. Be able to explain the lens effect and depth of field as it relates to microscope usage. Be able to calculate the total magnification of your microscope. Be able to explain how to prepare a wet mount slide
  5. A microscope offers a magnified image of the object you are viewing under it. The image might appear to float right above the observation tube. The image is the direct representation of the object itself. With the details, intensity, color, and shape. These expectations can be fulfilled with the right skills. Skills such as magnifying the Microscope. You need a few simple mathematical steps to.
  6. ed by the power of the ocular and objective lenses. The total magnification is the product of the separate magnifications of these two lenses. For example, a 10X ocular used with a 4X objective yields a total magnification of 40X. The magnification of the objective is written on its side
  7. microscope is the most highly perfected of all scientific instruments. These brief notes on alignment, the objective lens, the condenser, and the eyepieces are what you need to know to get the most out of your microscope and to feel comfortable using it. Figure 1 illustrates the important parts of a generic modern light microscope

Magnification - Microscopy, size and magnification (CCEA

Microscope Configuration. The polarized light microscope is designed to observe and photograph specimens that are visible primarily due to their optically anisotropic character. In order to accomplish this task, the microscope must be equipped with both a polarizer, positioned in the light path somewhere before the specimen, and an analyzer (a. Magnification and Resolution The microscope is an instrument of magnification. In the compound microscope, magnification is achieved through the interplay oftwo lenses-theocularlens and the objective lens. The objective lens magnifies the specimen to produce a real image that is projected to the ocular. This real image i

Focusing on an area at higher magnification levels (>100 kX) gives better surface topography analysis of a sample with the best spatial resolution (Goldstein et al., 2017). A metal stub is used for mounting samples that are coated with a 40-60 nm thick layer of carbon or metal, such as gold or palladium, and observed under the microscope. Project Report # 6. Measurement of Magnification of Microscope: A. To measure magnification under a microscope the tools required are an oculometre and a micrometer. 1. Oculometre: It is a piece of thin, circu­lar glass disc with a diameter of about 15 mm. A scale, the divisions of which are not to scale, is etched across the middle of the.

3.1: Introduction to the Microscope - Biology LibreText

37 LAB 3 - Use of the Microscope Introduction In this laboratory you will be learning how to use one of the most important tools in biology - the compound light microscope - to view a variety of specimens.You will also use a slightly different type of light microscope called a stereoscopic dissecting microscope If an additional 0.65x demagnifying lens were present in the C-Mount, the magnification when observing with a 10X objective would be reduced to 6.5x magnification, giving rise to a larger FOV (2030 µm in sample space), with larger effective pixels and a resolution that is approximately 1.5x worse Thus, under optimal conditions, the resolving power of the electron microscope is approximately 0.2 nm. Moreover, the resolution that can be obtained with biological specimens is further limited by their lack of inherent contrast. Consequently, for biological samples the practical limit of resolution of the electron microscope is 1 to 2 nm

This article published in a 1955 issue of Popular Electronics magazine is a really good primer on the history and working principles of the electron microscope. It also explains why such a device is needed; i.e., why an optical microscope cannot do the job when really high levels of magnification are required He was the first scientist to describe cells and bacteria through observation under microscope. By combining two or more lenses, the magnification of the microscopes was improved, thus allowing scientists to view smaller structures. The dissecting microscope is an optical microscope used to view images in three dimensions at low resolution. It. I recommend using a 10X objective. This will give you 400X with the 40X objective. To use the 100X objective, you will need to insert a drop of oil between the objective and the slide. Immersion oil is made especially for this purpose. At the 400X, or higher, magnification you will need to slice tissue very thin About magnification: To figure out the total magnification for a compound microscope, you need to know about two sets of lenses:The objective lens, which is closest to the specimen slide stage, produces an enlarged, inverted (upside-down) image of the specimen.The eyepiece lens then magnifies the image further. Total microscope magnification is determined by multiplying the objective.

Fact check: COVID-19 virus can't be seen under 25x optical

10x and the objective lens magnifies 50x, the total magnification is 500x (10 x 50). * Determine the total magnification with each of the objectives on your microscope and record in the chart. With a compound light microscope such as the one you are using, the level of magnification is almost limitless, but the resolution (resolving power) is not The modern theory of image formation in the microscope was founded in 1873 by the German physicist Ernst Abbe.The starting point for the Abbe theory is that objects in the focal plane of the microscope are illuminated by convergent light from a condenser. The convergent light from the source can be considered as a collection of many plane waves propagating in a specified set of directions and. A scanning probe microscope has a higher magnification than a light microscope with magnifications up to 100,000,000X. An advantage of SPM is that it provides researchers with a variety of specimen observation environments using the same microscope also reduces the time required to prepare an

An ultraviolet microscope uses UV light to view specimens at a resolution that isn't possible with the common brightfield microscope. It utilizes UV optics, light sources, as well as cameras. Because of the shorter wavelengths of UV light (180-400 nm), the image produced is clearer and more distinct at a magnification approximately double what. The most important feature of a microscope is its magnification. The compound microscope by Swift has a magnification power of 40x, 100x, 250x, 400x, and 1000x. So you can observe a variety of specimens on low and high magnification. The Swift Compound microscope has three objective lenses of 4x, 10x, and 40x on a rotatable nosepiece A dissecting microscope has two lens arrays which are aligned in such a manner that they bring about a three dimensional magnification of the object. It usually has two eyepieces for this same reason. The compound type uses multiple lenses to collect light, and its lenses help to focus the light to the eye of the viewer The resolution limit of electron microscopes is about 0.2nm, the maximum useful magnification an electron microscope can provide is about 1,000,000x. Why is a vacuum needed in an electron microscope? A light microscope uses light as its illumination source where as an electron microscope uses electrons

Microscope Images at Various Magnification

Microscopy and Staining Figure 2.1 Different types of microscopy are used to visualize different structures. Brightfield microscopy (left) renders a darker image on a lighter background, producing a clear image of theseBacillus anthracis cells in cerebrospinal fluid (the rod-shaped bacterial cells are surrounded by larger white blood cells) The objective magnification will be 1 for these calculations. If you change objectives, you need to recalculate. The knob magnifications, or click stops, are found on the knob here, and I have listed them below. When you multiply these number across, you find the true magnification for the microscope

Pollen Under The Microscope - Methods, Techniques and

How much magnification do I need? Microbehunter Microscop

It's a monocular microscope that comes with a fourth 100x retractable oil immersion objective for 1000x magnification. It includes a mechanical stage with low-position controls for precise microscope slide control, and a spiral-focusing 1.25 N.A. Abbe condenser with an iris diaphragm for improved, high-resolution image contrast 7X-45X ZOOM MAGNIFICATION STEREOSCOPIC TRINOCULAR DUAL ARM BOOM STAND MOUNTED MICROSCOPE Call For Price; New Handheld Pen Type Waterproof Digital PH & ORP Meter Automatic Calibration Range .0~14.0pH +/-500mV Water Analyzer $ 113.31 - $ 119.75; Jingxin Technology Scientific Laboratory 250W Mini Infrared Inoculating Loop Sterilizer 15min Heating Time Equipment JXHW-B $ 220.8